The process of formation of red blood cells is termed as erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis takes place in the bone marrow. Agents promoting synthesis of red blood cells are known as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
These are recombinant versions of a hormone erythropoietin, which is naturally produced by the kidneys and is responsible for stimulating bone marrow for red blood cells synthesis. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are recommended for the treatment of anemia. Hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells, which carries oxygen around the body. When the body does not receive enough oxygen because of less number of red blood cells, it results into anemia. Anemia is highly associated with chronic kidney disease, and the overall prevalence rate of the disease in the U.S. is 15%. About 50% of the population with advanced diseases develop anemia. Hence, besides the use of dialysis, the development and use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are significant advancements in treating patients with chronic kidney disease. These agents were introduced in 1980s and became a popular treatment for anemia.
In cases wherein patients cannot undergo blood transfusions, it becomes necessary to give them erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, also known as recombinant erythropoietin. Epoetin alfa (under the brand name Procrit and Epogen) and darbepoetin alfa (under the brand name Aranesp) are two agents approved by the FDA for treating anemia caused due to chemotherapy, chronic kidney disease, and certain treatments for HIV. These agents are given as subcutaneous injections or as intravenous injections. The dose frequency, depending on the patient’s condition, can vary from once in a week or once every two weeks.
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Increasing incidence of anemia cases worldwide is driving the growth of the global erythropoiesis-stimulating agents market. In addition, rising awareness about erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapies is contributing to the market growth. The demand for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents is rapidly increasing due to rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease and cancer and growing demand for cheaper erythropoietin drugs. Efforts are taken by researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop novel erythropoietin drugs. However, stringent regulatory norms and side effects such as hypersensitivity, hypertension, seizures, or convulsions associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are restraining the market growth.
The global erythropoiesis synthesis market can be broadly divided into two segments, namely biologics and biosimilars. On the basis of product type, the market can be segmented as epoetin-alfa, epoetin-beta, epoetin-zeta, epoetin-omega, epoetin-lambda, epoetin-delta, and darbepoetin-alfa. The latest product marketed as erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is darbepoetin, and the market for this agent is expected to grow during the forecast period. In terms of application, the market is segmented as erythropoietin agents used in treatment of kidney disorders, cancer, anti-retroviral treatment, neural diseases, and anemia caused as a side effect of HIV.
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Geographically, the global erythropoiesis-stimulating agents market is distributed over North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, Africa, and South America. North America consists of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. European market for erythropoietin stimulating agents includes countries like U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain etc. The erythropoietin stimulating agents market in Asia Pacific includes countries such as China, Japan, India, South Korea, Australia & New Zealand, and rest of Asia Pacific. North America accounted for the largest market value, but Asia Pacific is expected to expand at a high CAGR during the forecast period. The emerging economies and new products with better efficacy will be a big opportunity for the erythropoietin stimulating agents market.
Key players operating in the global market include Biocon, Johnson & Johnson, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Intas Pharmaceuticals, Amgen Inc., Hoffmann-La Roche, Biosidus, and Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd.
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