Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is an intensive care unit (ICU) for acquired infection. This pulmonary infection generally occurs 48 hours after a patient is incubated and has received mechanical ventilation. Incidence of VAP ranges from 6% to 55% and can reach up to 76% in some situations. VAP is a major cause of illness and death. Patients suffering with VAP have increased spans of ICU hospitalization. Moreover, death rate has risen to 20% to 30%. The incidence rate of VAP depends on many factors including reintubation, age & altered consciousness, duration of mechanical ventilation, and supine position. Early and precise diagnosis of VAP is tough and there is an urgent need of an optimal antibiotic treatment. Diagnosis of VAP requires high clinical suspicion in combination with bedside examination, microbiologic analysis of respiratory secretions, and radiographic examination. A composite clinical score named clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) is derived by observing these. CPIS is based on six criteria: blood leukocyte count, temperature, oxygenation, volume & purulence of tracheal secretions, semiquantitative culture of tracheal aspirate, and pulmonary radiography.
Based on these, the treatment of patients suffering from VAP is planned. Precise treatment of VAP is decided after exact causative bacteria of the disease is detected. On the other hand, when VAP is first is suspected, and if the bacteria causing the infection is specifically not known, then broad-spectrum of antibiotics (empiric therapy) are considered for the treatment, until exact cause of disease (particular bacteria) is determined.
The global ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) market is anticipated to grow rapidly in the near future. Major factors driving the market are rise in geriatric population, increase in hospital acquired in infections, and global rise in respiratory infections. One of the important elements affecting helping growth of hospital acquired infections is, ICU patients have prevailing underlying factors which relates to immunodeficiency for example glucocorticoid therapy or diabetes mellitus. These elements increase the risk of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Other factors fueling the growth of the global ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) market are rise in investments in health care, reimbursement policies in developed nations of North America and Europe, and advancements in technologies. However, high cost of overall treatment, side effects related to treatments, and lack of reimbursement policies in emerging countries are likely to restrain the market.
The global ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) market has been segmented based on diagnosis, mode of treatment, and end-user. In terms of diagnosis, the market has been segmented into radiological, microbiological, clinical, and others. Based on mode of treatment, the global ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) market has been divided into home care, hospital care, and others. In terms of end-user, the VAP market consists of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and others.
Geographically the global ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) market has been divided into North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America leads the global market due to better awareness among people about early diagnosis of diseases and rise in the number of respiratory & related infectious diseases. Favorable reimbursement policies and wide acceptance of advanced technologies are the other factors attributed to North America’s dominance of the global market. Europe is also projected to grow quickly, as top players in the market are cooperating with research institutions & labs to develop new innovative products. The market in Asia Pacific is projected to expand at a high growth rate due to increase in disposable income, unmet needs of the rising population, swiftly evolving health care network, improved reimbursement facilities, and health care awareness.
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Key players in the VAP market are Merck & Co., Inc., Adenium Biotech ApS (Denmark), AstraZeneca, MedImmune, Nabriva Therapeutics AG, and Thermo Fisher Scientific.