Chagas disease also known as American trypanosomiasis, was discovered by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, in 1909. The Trypanosoma Cruzi parasite transmits the infectious disease to humans and animals. The disease is spread by insect vectors known as Triatominae or kissing bugs. Neglected parasitic infection (NPI) is a group of five parasitic diseases. Chagas disease in one of the NPI in the United States, targeted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for community health action.
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According to the World Health Organization’s report 2017, about six to seven million people are infected with Chagas disease, mostly in Latin America. Trypanosoma Cruzi parasites are mainly spread by urine/feces of infected blood sucking triatominae bugs. Triatominae bugs, carrying these parasites, live in the roof or wall cracks of houses. These insects hide during the day and are active at night, biting any uncovered areas of the skin. Parasites from these bugs enter the human body when the individual unconsciously smears the bug’s excreta into the eyes, mouth, or inflamed skin. The disease also spreads through blood transfusion from an infected blood donor, laboratory accidents, organ transplanted from an infected donor, and by consuming foods contaminated with Trypanosoma Cruzi. An infected mother can pass the disease on to her child at the time of pregnancy or childbirth.
Chagas disease shows symptoms in two phases. The first or acute phase of symptoms lasts nearly two months after the infection. In this acute phase, large number of parasites circulates in systemic circulation. Symptoms in this stage are either mild, absent, or non-specific. In around 50% of people bitten by the triatominae bug, first visible indication is a purplish inflammation of an eyelid or skin lesion. Moreover, other indications include enlarged lymph glands, fever, muscle pain, swelling, headache, pallor, difficulty in breathing, and chest or abdominal pain. The second phase is the chronic phase. Parasites hide in the digestive muscles and heart. Nearly 10% of the patients suffer from neurological, digestive (usually enlargement of colon or esophagus), or mixed modifications. If neglected, it can lead to sudden death caused by progressive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmias owing to the damage caused to the cardiac muscles and the nervous system.
Chagas disease is detected by observing the parasite in blood smear by microscopic examination. Diagnosis can be made by two different serological tests. Lacks of nutrition (micronutrient and protein-energy malnutrition) exert a direct effect on the Chagas disease infection cause by Trypanosoma Cruzi, and rising the growth of Chagas disease treatment market. Lack of awareness about need for treatment of the disease and limited availability of treatment and medication can restrain the market growth.
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Chagas disease treatment market is segmented into three major categories: based on treatment, end-user, and region. In terms of treatment, the market is divided into two categories, medication and other possible treatments. Based on end-user, the market is bifurcated into hospital and clinical laboratories. Geographically, the global Chagas disease treatment market is divided into four broad regions: North America, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World. Latin America market is expected to grow significantly due to high prevalence rate of the disease, and increasing awareness about disease.
Key players operating in the global Chagas disease treatment market are Johnson & Johnson, KaloBios Pharmaceuticals, Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., ELEA SACIF Laboratory, and Bayer AG.